3D Buildings in Dubai – Modern Technology creating Futuristic Designs

3D technology has improved significantly since it was first used. Dubai, as the home of many modern architectural wonders, has wasted no time in finding a way to use this technology in order to create the first building that has the exterior, the interior and even the furniture made using only 3D printing technology. The building is the new office for the Dubai Future Foundation and has been a test for the creativity and versatility of 3D printing. Dubai aims to continue using their 3D printing innovations to become a world leading technological center of architecture and design.

The building was made using special reinforced concrete, fiber reinforced plastic and glass fiber reinforced gypsum. It has been described as an elaborate, modernized version of the Flintsone’s house in Bedrock. The structure was designed by the architectural firm Gensler and commissioned out to WinSun, because of their experience in making 3D buildings. This was the first building that they have actually constructed on site and they did so using a 20ft tall, 120ft long 3D printer. The building’s final measurement is 2600ft and its construction was completed in a slightly longer time period than two weeks. It is estimated that using 3D printing instead of traditional construction methods resulted in a savings of 80% in labor costs, and as much as 60% less material was wasted.

shutterstock_374243236Dubai is one of the most expensive places in the world to live, and the world’s second largest oil supplier. The country has still made it a priority to limit the ways in which it uses oil and is increasingly relying on cleaner energy sources, such as solar panels. There is a long term plan in place for them to become the cleanest city in the world by 2050. Dubai’s aim is to preserve the environment for future generations, and the country intends to do this using a combination of cleaner energy sources and 3D printing.

Plans are already being made to develop an innovative center, which will rely on 3D printing, as a base for research and development for other energy sources that will create a safer, healthier environment for us to live in. This is research that the entire world would be able to benefit from, when new ways and means of producing energy is found.

Dubai is currently working on other projects that will feature buildings made from 3D printing. This includes a ‘Museum of the Future’ which will have items that are all formed using 3D printing technology, and will show designs expected to be used 10 years in the future. The displays will be changed at least every six months in order to reflect the constant projection of being one decade ahead.

Dubai has proven that it is not only ahead of the majority of other nations, in the way that their technology is advancing but also in the way they are creating the future. Other countries can also benefit from following their example wherever possible.

Dubai’s advances in 3D printing for construction and other product manufacturing provided examples for the construction of the seasteaded city of Venus in the science based fiction Endless Fire Future Furies.

Additional information concerning 3D construction is available at


Global Warming and its Effect on Sea Levels

Global warming on the planet is being caused by an overwhelming amount of heat trapping gases in the atmosphere, due mainly to human pollution. This is causing a significant rise in sea levels, which have been going up between 0.04 and 0.10 inches annually since 1990. This is approximately twice the average speed in which it went up in the previous 80 years. There are three main ways in which global warming is causing a rise in sea levels. These are:

Thermal Expansion – The hotter water is the more it expands, and as the earth’s temperature increases sea water expands to take up more space in the ocean basin. The land masses create a boundary for the water and since there is nowhere else for it to go, the levels of the seas constantly rise.

The Melting of Glaciers and Ice Polar Sheets – Every summer a significant part of the world’s glaciers melt. In winter this part is replaced by snow, caused by evaporated sea water, which freezes to reform ice sheets and glaciers. In this way the height of the ice sheets normally remains the same. Unfortunately, with the higher temperature caused by global warming more of the ice is melting each year and less snow is falling to replace it. Seasons are also affected by global warming, causing late winters and early springs that mean more ice will melt.

shutterstock_324590741Ice Decreasing in Greenland and West Antarctica – The ice sheets that cover these areas are melting at a significantly increased rate. Ice streams become water and move into the sea faster every year. The Antarctica ice shelves are even melting from below sea levels, and large chunks of ice break off and float away to melt in warmer waters.

The Effects of Rising Sea Levels

40% of the world’s population lives in an area that is on or near the coast. The damage that can result from rising sea levels puts millions of lives at risk and creates the potential for an extensive amount of property damage. The higher water levels mean that storm surges will occur more frequently. This threatens the natural protection of the sea, and barrier islands, beaches, mangroves and sand dunes retreat inland or end up under water. The impact this has on the area is the destruction of the habitat of many birds, fish, other animals and plants that we rely on either directly or indirectly for sustenance. Man-made protective structures are also at risk and those that are not simply swept away, suffer from foundational erosion.

Our drinking water and agriculture is also being negatively affected. Salt water from rising seas can enter pipes and contaminate the fresh water supply. If the water levels get much higher unpredictable flooding can occur and agricultural and grazing fields will be covered, killing both plants and livestock.

Global warming is already forcing massive human migrations. In the central tropical Pacific, the 112,000 citizens of the island-chain nation of Kiribati (pronounced Kirri bas) are being forced to abandon their homes and their islands due to ocean flooding. Many of the Kiribati citizens are now living as landless, nationless, climate refugee in camps in Australia. The ocean inundated Kiribati island of Kiritimati (pronounced Christmas) is the location of the seasteaded city of Venus in the science based fiction, Endless Fire Future Furies.

Unless we take drastic action to decrease global warming, scientists have predicted that sea levels will continue to rise. In as quickly as a couple of generations, our descendants may not be able to even see the same places that we now know and love.

Seasteading – Cities Riding the Waves

A combination of the sea and homesteading, which is a self-sufficient lifestyle; seasteading is the idea of creating permanent accommodation at sea. The idea originated with modifying cruise ships in order to create a home on the water. The first one that was adapted to facilitate living in this way cost in excess of USD$10 million to transform. One of the things that is the most appealing about these cities is the fact that they would be outside of any government’s control, and the residents would choose to be under the rules of the country that the ship displays its flag.

The Seasteading Institute

Founded on April 15, 2008 by Wayne Gramlich and Patri Friedman, after a USD$500,000 contribution by Paypal founder, Peter Thiel, the institute has undertaken the task of facilitating the creation of affordable living conditions at sea.

In 2013, the floating city project was launched with the idea of setting up the cities within shallow waters controlled by a nation. The calm waters and the close proximity of the shore would make it easy to get necessary deliveries. The goal of the institute is to have the first floating city established by 2020.

The founders have approached three (currently unknown) nations to offer to develop the construction near their shores and, therefore, under their jurisdiction. The value that this would have to these nations is undeniable, in terms of setting up a separate economy where new political structures and laws can be tried out.

Each city would be made up of 10-15 platforms each housing 20 people. This would mean a total of 200-300 people per city. The cost to set up these structures has been estimated at USD$15 million per platform and $150-165 million per city. Fortunately, the project will be privately funded and there are already many people interested in the prospect.

The concept has been supported by several architects and different designs have been entertained. One example of a unique concept was developed by Belgian architect, Vincent Callebaut, who designed a floating aquatic home, made of algae and garbage. One can only imagine the advantages of building cities out of the waste of the rest of the world. This is not the only concept that has been presented, however, and most of us will have to wait until closer to the year 2020 to see which one will prevail.

Humanity is always searching for new horizons and ways to expand our territory. Seasteading, and the idea of living outside of the jurisdiction of a specific country will continue to have its appeal, and more than likely there will soon be other projects similar to The Seasteading Institute’s that will follow the same intention.

EndlessFire8In my science based fiction, Endless Fire Future Furies, I employ the seasteading concept with the Society Preserving Endangered Agriculture or SPEA establishing itself as an independent state through seasteading. SPEA constructs its city-state on a forty acre platform above the Pacific island of Kiritimati, or as we pronounce it – Christmas Island. As a totally independent state SPEA engages the most advanced technologies to ensure that is completely self-sufficient as regards to energy and food. I see it as a very possible and probable future.

For more information about seasteading:

Protecting the Seas through Science – The US Navy fulfils a Mission

shutterstock_89290870 (1)The core mission of the United States Navy is to meet America’s global security commitments at sea. In order to do this they are continuously carrying out tests and training, in the major water bodies surrounding the country. These include using sonar technology and carefully monitored underwater explosions. The effects of these tests on marine life are still not completely understood. In order to ensure that the animals are being protected as well as possible the US Navy monitors and reports conditions that might affect them, following guidelines which are outlined under the Endangered Species and the Marine Mammal Protection Acts.

The Navy forms partnerships with other agencies, universities and private companies in order to get the best results. Together they conduct research which shows them the most efficient way to monitor and protect marine life. Many of the scientists are civilian employees, even though the projects that they work on are funded by the Navy. All the findings are reviewed by leaders in the field to determine how accurate they are, before the results are published.

The program that the US Navy has put in place to minimise the harm of at sea training and testing, is the Marine Mammal Research Program. In order to fulfil this objective, the program is divided into 4 main areas of study which work together to determine the possible effects on marine mammals.

  1. shutterstock_85273630Marine Mammal Ecology and Population Dynamics.

This team’s main objectives are to determine the number of species that are located in areas that the navy conducts training. In addition, it aims to understand their seasonal distribution and unique behaviours.

  1. Criteria and Thresholds to Measure the Effects of Navy Generated Sounds.

This area is responsible for concluding what the effects of sound are on the animals’ behaviour, including both manmade and natural noises. The main concern is that the mid-frequency sonar does not reach levels that might affect any of the mammals.

  1. Improving Monitoring Techniques

Properly monitoring a species is the best way to determine how to provide the safest possible environment for them. This department spends most of its time trying to decide what the best way to observe, detect and classify marine life is, in order to help them as much as possible.

  1. Sound Field Characterization

Directly concerned with the results of their sonar experiments, this branch is tasked with developing protocols and models to predict how the sounds will spread in water.

The US Navy has already committed to continuing its research and monitoring of the animals throughout the next decade. This will allow the Navy to meet its national security requirements, by protecting the US as well as our beautiful marine mammals.

Viruses and their Threat to Mankind

Even though we are exposed to viruses in various forms from as early as we can remember, they still remain beyond our control. Many of them such as chicken pox and the common cold have symptoms that are very uncomfortable, while others pose a much more serious threat to humanity. The significant difference between the size of the organism and the amount of damage that it can do to the human population, almost seems to be a mockery of our systems.

shutterstock_210544051Ebola is one of the viruses that is currently associated with many human deaths. It is believed to have originated in bats in West Africa, and is transferred in humans quickly and easily through contact with those that are affected. It is associated with an extremely high fatality rate, as approximately 50% of those that are infected end up dying from the virus. The symptoms are very flu-like in appearance but quickly escalate to include nausea and diarrhoea. In order to find a cure or vaccine to help decrease the amount of people that die from the virus, scientists are continuously studying the survivors.

HIV is another virus that has affected the world population significantly. It is caught mainly from sexual or blood contact, and breaks down the immune system by attacking CD4 white blood cells directly. Different medications, over the years, have made it possible for people to live for very long periods without the virus advancing any further.

shutterstock_248200417Even though the regular influenza virus is responsible for a large number of deaths each year, it becomes even more dangerous when a new strain develops. One example of an influenza epidemic was the outbreak of the Spanish Flu in 1918, where in excess of 40% of the world’s population got sick and more than 25 million people died. Another strain of influenza that has proved fatal in more modern times was the swine flu (H1N1 virus) attack in 2009.

Our battles with these miniscule killers are long and continuous, but there is sometimes a great victory on our side. Smallpox was one of the most deadly viruses to plague us for centuries, leaving at least 1/3 of its victims dead and many survivors permanently scarred or blind. In 1980, it was announced that the world was now free of the threat of smallpox. Virologists, and doctors, took advantage of the distinct symptoms and began treating those exposed to the virus by giving them the ‘ring vaccine’ as soon as possible after exposure, resulting eventually in its complete eradication.

After being affected by certain viruses, our immune system produces natural anti-bodies so they cannot infect us more than once. Getting the full blown virus can be deadly so vaccines are made by introducing weakened forms of the viruses into the body, to allow it to develop its own immunity. This has been very successful in limiting the amount of people certain viruses affect. Virologists and other scientists continue to work diligently at finding ways to make vaccines for the ones that still continue to prove fatal.

Genetic Engineering – The Human Quest for Perfection

The human genetic composition is what determines our health, personal traits and even our behaviour. Genes are passed on to us from our parents, and can also be the source of many imperfections as well as hereditary diseases. As humans we are always trying to make everything better, including ourselves. This has resulted in the desire to modify the genes in embryos, and foetuses, in order to improve our genetic make-up. The biggest controversy associated with genetic engineering is whether or not it is an ethical practice and should be continued, or even advanced.

shutterstock_133184528‘Gene therapy’ is currently as far as human genetic engineering has extended, meaning that the process is applied to non-reproductive cells. Doing this has facilitated the ability to find cures for certain diseases. As a result, it has become a revered application in the medical field.

These advancements have made also it possible for us to clone entire species, and in 1996 the first ever fully cloned mammal, Dolly the sheep, was ‘born.’ She lived for six years and, even after her death, is still the cause of much speculation about whether this is a procedure that should ever have been undertaken because with the ability to clone another mammal comes the ability to ‘make’ a human. This is a possibility that comes too close to playing God for the majority of society to handle.

Europe, for ethical reasons, has a ban on the cloning of human embryos. There is no limit on what many other countries can experiment with, however, and China has recently genetically engineered embryos with the intention of modifying the gene responsible for thalassaemia (a fatal blood disorder). The embryos used in their experiments were non-viable and obtained from IVF banks where they had been fertilised by two sperm, and had no possibility of a live birth. There has still been public demand that action be taken to stop this from continuing, due to the fact that nobody can be certain whether or not the embryos used will remain non-viable.

shutterstock_26340893China isn’t the only country experimenting with human genetic engineering, and in the western world there is a lot of development in the field as well. In the United States, James Grifo has found a way to transfer cell nuclei from eggs of older women to younger ones with the aim of overcoming infertility. The infants that will be born, from these eggs, will genetically have three parents.

The search for perfection has always been a fascination for humans, and James Watson conducts seminars promoting of the use of genetic engineering for enhancing ourselves. He is adamant that as soon as the technology is available people should be able to add genes to themselves, to improve who they are. There has also been the suggestion made by French Anderson, a US gene therapy pioneer, that we do gene therapy on foetuses to treat genetic conditions. These modified genes will then continue to be passed on to all future generations, stopping the undesirable genes from returning altogether.

Human genetic engineering does bring with it the possibility of becoming ‘perfect.’ The question that arises from this, however, is whether this should really be our aim? It is quite possible that our imperfections are what actually make us human in the first place.